The ancient people of India have a continuous civilization since the pre historic age of 40001 BC.when the first people of the world began to live.Most probably first people came to india from Africa. Initially they gathered in the north part of India and their only profession was hunting. In 4000 BC they moved to the Indus valley civilization and took farming as main profession.
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization, today it is located at Pakistan and northwest India
The most accepted period 2500 BC to 1750 BC(by carbon-14 dating)
the term Indus valley civilization first used by famous scholar john marshall.
The Indus civilization was spread over sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujrat, western U.P. and Northern Maharastra.
It was the believe of scholars that Harappa-Ghaggar-Mohenjodaro axis represents the heartland of the Indus valley civilization.
In Around 4000 BCE and 3000 BCE,Farming settlement begans.
By 2600 BCE. ,there appeared the first signs of urbanization.
Between 2500 and 2000 BCE ,dozens of towns and cities had been established, and the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak.
Site of Indus valley civilization
The site of Indus valley civilization are:-
• Mohenjodaro-the largest site of Indus valley civilization
• Dholavira:-The largest Indian site of Indus valley civilization
• Surkotada(kutchh district,Gujrat):-The only Indus site where the remains of horse have actually been found.
Excavators of Indus Valley Site
• Daya Ram Sahni(1921)
• Madho Swaroop Vasta(1926),
• Rakhal Das Bannerji(1922)
• N.G.Mazumdar (1931)
• Amalanand Ghosh (1951),
• B.B.Lal and B.K.Thapar (1961)
Main Crops of Indus valley
Wheat and Barelys
• Cotton etc
Exports and Imports
Gold from Kolar(Karnatka),Afghanistan,Persia(iran)
• Silver from Afghanistan,Persia(iran),south india
• Copper from Khetri(Rajasthan),Baluchistan ,Arabia
• Tin from Afghanistan ,Bihar
• Lapis Lazuli and sapphire from Badak-Shan(Afganistan)
• Jade from Central Asia
• Steatite from Shaher-i-Sokhta,Kirthar Hills
• Amethyst from maharastra etc
• Cotton goods
• Terracotta figurines
• Certain beads from chanhudaro
• Conch-shell from lothal
• Ivory product
• Copper etc
Common features of major cities
town planning is systematic on the lines of grid system.
Use of burnt bricks in construction
Underground drainage system(giant water reservoirs in Dholavira)
Decline Of Indus Valley Civilization
Many reasons were given for the decline of the indus valley civilization, but none of it are confirmed.Few of them are,
Earthquake: As sites lie on the border of Eurasian plate and Indian plate, it was suggested that the tectonic plate movement resulted in the earthquake leading to the fall of civilization.
Floods:Heavy floods caused by Indus and its tributaries.
Change of course of River: Due to earthquake the course of river was changed leading to the famine in the sites, however this been ruled out as the geological processes takes longer time to change.
Aryan Attack: Remains of the civilization indicate that there was an invasion by the outsiders leading to the end of civilisation .As we also know Indus valley civilization people were peace lover from the fact that they were more tools than weapons.This might have made them vulnerable to the attacks.But the facts which contradicts this is Aryans were migrants and not invaders and the period of arrival of aryans doesn’t match with decline of Indus valley civilization