magadha kingdom

Magadha Kingdom(600-300 B.C)

Magadha Empire is divided into three dynasties:-

  1. Haryank Dynasty

  2. Shisunaga Dynasty

  3. Nanda Dynasty.

Haryank Dynasty

  1. The epic Mahabharata has provided information about the early period.

  2. Jarasandh and Brihdrath were the rulers during the period of Mahabharata.

  3. Girivraja was the magadhan capital during the early period.

Bimbisara (544-492 B.C.)

  1. Bimbisara established Haryank dynasty.

  2. Rajgir was the capital of the state .

  3. Bimbisara ascended the throne in 544 B.C.

  4. In Jain Literature he has been called as Shraunik.

  5. Bimbisara had three wives,mahakosala,Chellana and Khema.

  6. Mahakosala was the sister of Kosal ruler Prasenjit and Chellana was Lichchhavi princess.

  7. Bimbisara defeated Anga and annexed it.

  8. Bimbisara was contemporary of Buddha.

  9. Bimbisara send his physician jivak to treat chand pradyot of Avanti.

  10. Bimbisara was prisoned by his son Ajatshatru and died in 493 B.C.

Ajatshatru(492-460 B.C.)

  1. Ajatshatru sat on the Magadha throne in 492 B.C.

  2. Ajatshatru followed an expansionist policy.

  3. After long struggle he defeated Kasi and Vajji confederacy.

  4. Ajatshatru took the services of his minister Vassakar to divide the vajji confederacy.

  5. Ajatshatru got a large stupa constructed in Rajgriha.

  6. Gautama Buddha died during his reign;arranged the first Buddhist council.

  7. Ajatshatru constructed a fort around Rajgriha to protect it from Lichcchavi attack.

  8. Ajatshatru was killed by his Udayin in 461 B.C.

  9. Udayin transferred the capital to patliputra.

  10. Udayin was a follower of Jainism .

  11. The last Haryanka ruler was Nagdasak.

    Shisunaga Dynasty

  1. Nagdasak was killed by his minister Shisunaga.

  2. Shisunaga established shisunaga dynasty in 412 B.C.

  3. Shisunaga annexed Avanti to Magadha.

  4. Shisunaga established his capital at Vaishali

  5. Kalashoka came to the throne in 344 B.C.

  6. Kalashoka again transferred the capital to Pataliputra

  7. During the reign of Kalashoka second Buddhist council was organized at Vaishali.

  8. Nandivardhan was the last Shisunaga ruler.

Nanda Dynasty

  1. Nanda Dynasty was established by Mahapadmananda.

  2. According to Puranas he was not a Kshatriya.

  3. Mahapadmananda was known as Ekarat and Sarvakshatrantaka.

  4. Mahapadmananda conquered kalinga.

  5. Last Nanda ruler was Dhanananda.

  6. Dhanananda was the contemporary of Alexander.

  7. Alexender attacked india in the reign of Dhanananda (the last ruler).

  8. The Nandas were fabulously rich and enormously powerful.

  9. Nanda Dynasty was destroyed by Chandragupta Maurya and Chanankya.

  10. Nandas have been termed as first empire builder of india.

Factors for the rise of Magadha Kingdom

  1. Magadha enjoyed an advantageous geographical position.

  2. Iron deposits were situated close to Rajgir,the earliest capital of Magadha

  3. Rajgir and Pataliputa were situated at very strategic points.

  4. Pataliputra was surrounded by rivers from all sides it was called as Jaladurga(water-fort).

  5. Magadha lay at the centre of the middle Gangetic plain.

  6. Magadha for the first time used elephants on a large scale in wars.

  7. Greek sources have mentioned that the Nandas maintained 6000 elephants.

  8. Magadha society was unorthodox and was recently Aryanized.

  9. Ambitious rulers like Bimbisara,Ajatshatru and Mahapadma nanda established Magadha as a powerful kingdom.