THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS

THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS

The Advent of Europeans

Portugese:-

 

  1. The cape route was discovered from Europe to india by Vasco de Gama.He reached the port of Calicuta on may 17,1498 and was received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut  (known by the title of Zamorin).

  2. This led to the establishment of trading stations at Calicut,cochin and cannanore.

  3. Cochin was the early capital of the portugese in india.bater Goa replaced it.

  4. Francisco de Almeida was the first governor of portuguese . Almeida (1505-09) introduced ‘ the policy of Blue water’

  5. Alfonso d’ Albuquerque was the second governor of portugese. Albuquerque (1509-15) introduced ‘the policy of imperialism ‘,He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510.

  6. Nino da Cunha(1529-38) transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa (1530) and acquired Diu and Bassein(1534) from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.

  7. Martin Alfonso de Souza (1542-45) the famous Jesuit saint Xavier arrived in india with him

  8. The Portuguese power witnessed a decline by the end of the 16th

  9. The lost Hugli in 1631 after being driven out by Qasim Khan,a Mughal noble of Shahjahan.

  10. In 1661 the king of Portugal gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry when he married the former’s sister.

  11. The Marathas captured Salsette and Bassein in 1739.

  12. In the end they were left only with Goa,Diu and Daman ,which they retained till 1961

Dutch:-

  1. Formation of the company in March 1602, by  a charter of Dutch Parliament,the Dutch east india company was formed with powers to make wars ,conclude treaties, acquire territories and build fortresses.

  2. The Dutch set up factories at Masulipattam(1605),pulicat(1610),Surat (1616),Bimilipatam(1641),karaikal (1645), Chinsura(1653 ),kasimbazar ,Baranagore, patna, Balasore, Negapatam(all in1658) and cochin(1663).

  3. The Dutch replaced the Portuguese as the most dominant power in European trade with the east ,I ncluding india.

  4. Pulicat was main centre in india till 1690,after which Negapatam replaced it.

  5. The Dutch conceded to English after their defeat in the battle of Bedera in 1759

English:-

  1. Before the English east india company established trade in india, John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer,was the first English man who arrived in india in 1599 by the over land route ,ostensibly for the purpose of trade with Indian merchants.

  2. These Governors and company of merchant of London Trading into the East Indies popularly known as the English East india company, was formed in 1600.

  3. Captain William Hawkins arrived at Jahangir ‘s Court(1609) to seek permission to open a factory at Surat .A Farman was issued by Jahangir permitting the English to built a factory at surat.

  4. Sir Thomas Roe came to india as ambassador of james I to Jahangir’s court in 1615 to obtain the permission to trade and erect factories in different part of empire.

  5. The English East India Company acquired Bombay from Charles II on lease.Gerald Aungier was the first governor from 1669 to 1677.

  6. In 1690, Job Charnock established a factory at Sutanati and the Zamindari of three villages of Sutanati,Kalikata and Gobinpur was acquired by the British(1698).These villages later grew into the city of Calcutta. the factory of Sutanati was fortified in 1696 and his new fortified settlement was named Fort William in 1700

  7. In 1694,the British parliament passed a resolution giving equal rights to all Englishmen to trade in the East. A new arrival company, known as ‘the English company of merchants Trading to the East indies,was formed (1698).

  8. The Final amalgamation (combination of one or more companies) of the company came in 1708 under the title of the united company of merchants of England Trading to the east indies’ .the new company continued the existence till 1858.

French:-

 

  1. The French East India company was formed by Colbert under state patronage(the support given to an organization by someone) in1664.

  2. The first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron in 1668.

  3. A factory at Masulipatanam. Was set up in 1669.

  4. The French power in india was revived under Lenoir and Dumas (governors) between 1720 and 1742.They occupied Mahe in the Malabar.Yanam in Coromandal and Karaikal in Tamil Nadu(1739)

  5. The arrival of Dupleix as French governor in india in 1742 saw the beginning of Anglo-french conflict(carnatic Wars) resulting in their final defeat in india.

Points to be remember:-

  1. The East india company acquired Bombay from Charles II on lease.Gerald Aungier was its first governor from 1669 to 1677.

  2. The first factory was built at Surat in (1608).Later, surat was replaced by Bombay as the head quarter of the company on the west coast in 1687.

  3. In 1639,Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chadragiri with permission to build a fortified factory ,which was named Fort  George.

  4. Madras soon replaced Masulipatam as the headquater of the English on the Coromandal Coast.

  5. In 1690,Job Charnock established a factory at Sutanuti and the Zamindari of the three villages of Sutanuti,Kalikata and Govindpur was acquired by British in (1698).these villages later grew into the city of Calcutta.

  6. The factory of Sutanuti was fortified in 1696 and this new fortified settlement named “Fort William “ in 1700.

  7. In 1669, the British Parliament passed a resolution giving equal rights to all Englishmen to trade in the east.A new rival company  known as the English company of merchants Trading to the east indies (1698) was formed.

  8. The Final amalgamation of the company came in 1708 under the title of “the united Company of Merchant of England Trading to the East indies”.This new Company continued its existence till 1858