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Religious Movement

RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT

The period between 7th and 5th century BC was turning point in the intellectual and spiritual development of the whole world,for it witnessed the emergence of early philosophers of Greece,t he great Hebrew poets, Confucius in china and Zoroaster in Persia.

It was at this time that Jainism and Buddhism arose in india,each based on a  distinctive set of doctrines and each laying down distinctive rules of conduct  for attaining salvation.

 Causes of  Religious movement

  1. Vedic philosophy had lost its original purity.

  2. Vedic religion had became very complex and degenerated into superstitions,dogmas and rituals.

  3. Supremacy of the Brahmas created unrest in the society and kshatriya reacted against the Brahmanical domination.

  4. Introduction of a new agriculture economy in eastern india.

  5. The desire of vaishyas to improve their social position with the increase in their economic position due to the growth of trade.

Buddhism:Buddha’s life

  1. Gautama, the Buddha also known as Siddhartha,Sakyamuni and Tathagata.

  2. Born in 563 BC (widely accepted), on the vaisakha purnima day at Lumbini,near Kapilvastu,capital of Sakya republic.

  3. Left home at the age of 29 and attained nirvana at the age of 35 at Bodh Gaya.

  4. Delivered his first sermon at Samath.

  5. He attainted Mahaparinirvana at Kusinara in 483 BC.

Types of Buddhism

Hinayana

  1. Believed of Followers in the original teaching of Buddha.

  2. They required individual salvation through self discipline and meditation.

  3. They did not believe in idol worship.

  4. Hinayana ,like jainsim, is a religion without god,karma taking the place of God..Nirvana is regarded as the extinction of all.

  5. The oldest school of Hinayana Buddhism is the sthaviravada(Theravada in pali) or the “Doctrine of Elders”.

  6. Its Sanskrit counterpart, which is more philosophical ,is known as Sarvastivada or the doctrine which maintain the existence of all things,physical as well as mental.

  7. Gradually from sarvastivada or vaibhasika branched off another another school called Sautantrika,which was more critical in outlook.

Mahayana

  1. Its followers believed in the heavenliness of Buddha and sought the salavation through the grace  and help of  budha and Bodhisatavas

  2. Believes in idol worship

  3. Believes that nirvana is not a negative cessation of misery but a positive state of bliss.

  4. Mahayana had two chief philosophical schools :Madhyarnika and the yogachara

  5. The former took a line midway between a uncompromising realism of Hinayanism and the idealism of yogachara,

  6. The yogachara school,founded by Maitreyanatha,completely rejected the realism Hinayana and maintain absolute idealism

Vajrayana

  1. Its followers  believed that salvation could be best attained by acquiring the magical power,which they called vajra

  2. The chief divinities of this new sect were the Taras.

  3. It became popular in eastern india ,particularly Bengal and Bihar

Buddhist Scriputures

  1. The Vinaya Pitaka 

  • Mainly deals with rules and regulations,which the Buddha promulgated

  • It describe in detail the gradual development of the Sangha

  • An account of the life and teaching of Buddha also given

  1. The Sutta Pitaka

  • Consists chiefly of discourses delivered by Buddha himself on different occasion

  • Few discourses delivered by sariputta,Ananda,Moggalana and other are also included in it.

  • it lays down principle of Buddhism.

  1. The abhidhamrna Pitaka

  • Contains the profound philosophy of the buddha’s teaching.

  • It investigates mind and matter to help the understanding of things as they truly are

Among the non-canonical literature Milindapanho,Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa are important.The later two are the great chronicles of Ceylon.

Contribution

  1. The doctrine of Ahimsa,so strongly stressed ,devoutly preached  and sincerely practiced by the Buddhists  was incorporated in Hinduism of later days.

  2. The practicing of worshipped  personal gods,making their images and erecting temples in their honour became part of the later day Hinduism.

  3. Buddhism proved to be one of the greatest civilizing forces,which india gave to the neighbouring countries.

  4. Buddhism broke the separation of india and helped in establishment of intimate contacts between india and other countries.

Buddhist council

  1. The first council was held in 483 BC at Sattapanni cave near Rajagriha to compile the Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.

  2. The second council was held at vaisali in 383 BC.the monks of vaisali wanted some change in the rites.Schism into Sthaviravadins and Mahasanghikas.

  3. The third council was held at Patliputra during the reign of Ashoka,236 years after the death of Buddha.it was held under the presidentship of Moggliputta Tissa to revise the scriptures.

  4. The fourth council was held during the reign of kanishka in Kashmir under the presidentship of Vasumitra and Asvaghosha and resulted in the division of Buddhists into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.

Jainism

Life of Mahavira

  1. Born in 540 BC at Kundagrama near vaisali

  2. Siddhartha was his father,Trisala was his mother,Yasoda his wife and Jameli was the daughter.

  3. Attained Kaivalya at Jrimbhikagrama in eastern india at the age of 42.

  4. Died at the age of 72 in 468 BC at Pavapuri near

  5. He was called Jina or Jitendriya,Nirgrantha and Mahavira

  6. The Principle of Jainism,as preached by mahavira

  7. Rejected the authority of Vedas and vedic rituals.

  8. Did not believe in the existence of god

  9. Believe in karma and the transmigration. Of soul

  10. Laid great emphasis on equality Jaina philosophy

Jaina councils

  1. By the end of the fourth century BC,there was a serious famine in the Ganges Valley leading to a great exodus of many jaina monks to the Deccan and the south india (Sravana Belgola) along with Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya.

  2. They returned to the Gangetic valley after 12 years

  3. The leader of the group ,that stayed back at Magadha was Sthulabahu

  4. The changes that took place in the code of conduct of the followers of Sthulabahu led to the division of the jainas into Digambaras and Svetambaras

  5. First council was held at Patliputra by Sthulabahu  in the beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas.

  6. Second Council was held at Valabhi in the 5th century AD  under the leadership of Devaradhi Kshamasramana and resulted in malcompilation of 12 Angas  and 12 Upangas.

Spread of Jainism

  1. Jainism received patronage from the kings of the time,including Chandragupta Maurya.

  2. In the south,royal dynasties such as Gangas,Kadambas,Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas patronized

  3. In Gujarat,patronage came from wealthy merchants

  4. The concrete expression of jainism’s religious zeal is seen all over the country in work of art and architecture.

  5. The 57-foot high statue of Gomateshvara at Sravanabelagola in mysore,erected in 983 or 984 AD,is a marvel of its kind.

  6. The temples at Mount Abu and those Palithana in Gujarat and Moodabidri and Karkala in the south make a rich contribution to the Indian heritage.

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