Plant Morphology

Plant maorphology


The study of forms and features of different parts of plants like roots, stems, leaves , flowers, fruit etc is called Plant Morphology.


Root is the decending part of the plant which develops from radical.

Root always grows in the soil away from light.

Roots are of two types-

  1. Tap root

  2. Adventitious root

Modification of Tap root are:-

  1. Conical –like carrot

  2. Napiform-like Turnip,beet etc.

  3. Fusiform-like Radish


This is the part of the plant which grows towards light.

It develops from Plumule

The modification of stem are as under:-

Underground stem

  1. Tuber-like potato

  2. Bulb-like onion ,Garlic etc.

  3. Rhizome-like Turmeric,Ginger etc.


It is green .its main function is to make food through photosynthesis


This is the reproductive part of the plant.

In the flower Calyx,Corolla,Androecium and Gynoecium are found out of these  androecium is male sex organ and the Gynoecium  is female sex organ.

Androecium:- Unit of androcium is stamen there is one or more stamens in the androecium .pollen grains are found in anther.

Gynoecium:-Unit of gynoecium is carpel.There are three parts of Carpel

  1. Ovary

  2. Style

  3. Stigma


After maturation of Anther ,the process of reaching of pollen grains to stigma is called pollination.Pollination is of two types

  1. Self Pollination

  2. Cross Pollination


Pollen tubes reaches the egg cell after entering into the ovule through a pore called micryopyle. After that a male nucleus fuses with egg cell. This is called Fertilization. Fertilization egg is called Zygote.

In angiosperm,the fertilization is triple fusion whereas in other category of plant it is double fusion


In some plants fruits are developed from ovary without fertilization.This type of fruit is called parthenocarpy.normally these types of fruits are seedless.

Example:-Banana ,Papaya,Orange,grapes,pine-apple etc.

Formation of fruits:-

Fruit is matured or ripened ovary developed after fertilization.

Formation of fruit takes place from Ovary.

Fruits are divided into three types

  1. Simple fruit-Like Banana , Guava etc

  2. Aggregate fruit:-Strawberry,Custard apple etc.

  3. Composite fruit-Jackfruit,Mulbery etc.

    In the development of some fruits ,Calyx,Corolla and Thalmus takes part. These types of fruits are called False fruit.Example- Apple,Jack fruit,pear etc.