North India on the Eve of Muslim  Invasions

Multan and Sindh

  1. The Arab rulers there  took off the yoke of the caliph in 871 AD and became independent.

  2. On the eve of 11th century, Multan was under the Karmathians; Sindh proper was ruled by the Arabs.


  1. Pratiharas ruled Kannauj from the middle of the 9th century AD.

  2. The last Pratihara ruler was Rajyapata whose capital Kanauj was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni.

  3. Then Gahadawala  dynasty was founded by Chandradeva.

  4. Jai Chandra’s hostility with Prithviraj is a well established fact in Indian history.

  5. The Chandelas:They were ruling over Khajuraho.

  6. The Chandela ruler Vidya Dhara had fought against Mahmud of Ghazni.

  7. Praranard had suffered defeats at the hand of Prithviraj Chauhan in 1182 AD

The Chauhans(Capital at Ajmer)

  1. They were the rivals of the Tomars for long time.

  2. Durlabharija III lost his life while fighting against the Muslims.

  3. Prithviraj I, Ajayaraja and Anoraja were the next ruler who were famous for the enmity with the muslim

  4. Bisal or Vigraharaja IV ,the son of Anoraja captured the fort  of Jhansi and Delhi and the Tomars became his feudatories.

  5. There was a severe enmity between Chauhans and the Chalukyas.

The Tomars

  1.  They were ruling over Delhi and subsequently became the vassals of the Chauhans.

  2. The Solankis of Gujrat (The Chalukyas)

  3. Founded  in the middle of the 10th century by Mulraja.

  4. During the time of Jayasimaha Sidha raja state of western india

  5. Mulraja II was the king duing the attack of Muhammad Ghori on india.

  6. Bhima II was the ruler to face Muhammad Ghori in the battlefield.

The Parmaras

  1. Ruling over Malwa region.

The Kalachuris

  1. One branch in Gorakhpur region,another branch at Tripuri region.


  1. Ruled over Bengal

  2. After Devapala’s death the palas became weak

  3. Mahipala I was the contemporary of Mahmud of Ghazni.