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Medieval period

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT INMEDIEVEL PERIOD

South India between 9TH -12TH Centuries(The imperical Chola)

Between these centuries of Medieval period, two great dynasties of the Chalukyas of Kalyan and Cholas of Tanjore ruled south india. The founder was Vijayalaya who was Pallava taudatory .He caputured Tanjore in 850 AD,fought  Pandyas. By 897 AD,the Cholas were strong enough to overthrow and kill Pallava king and capture the entire Tondamandala.

In 907 AD of Medieval period, Parantaka I became king who was the first important ruler of the dynasty.Intially,the Cholas had to struggle hard against the Rashtrakutas.In 949 AD,the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III deafed Parantaka and annexed Northern part. it was serious  a set back but the Cholas rapidly recovered especially after the Death of Krishna III  in 965 AD

The last ruler of the dynastic line in Medieval period  was Rajendra III who ruled till 1267 AD and was defeated by Pandyan ruler.

VIJAYALAYA

Established Chola power by capturing Tanjore in 850 AD.

ADITYA1

  1. Acquired gains from the fratricidal war between the two Pallava princes Nripatuinga and Aparajita.

  2. Mudered Aparajita and occupied the Pallava territory in Tandainandalam

  3. Aditya’s son Parantka married the daughter of the contemporary Chola ruler Sthanvari

  4. Aditya built tall stone temple of Shiva on both banks of the Kaveri from the Sahyadri to the sea.

PARANTAKA (907 AD)

  1. Invaded the Pandya country and took the title of Madurai Konda

  2. Defeated the combined army of Ceylonese ruler Kassapav and Pandya ruler Maravarman Rajasimha II in the battle of Vellar.

  3. Defeated the Rashtrakuta ruler KrishnaII in the decisive battle of Vallala

SUNADARACHOLA(957-73 AD)

  1. He was also known as Parantaka II

  2. With the help of his son Aditya II defeated and killed the Pandyan ruler Vira Pandya

UTTAMA CHIA

  1. He was the son of Gandaraditya

  2. Defeated by the later Chalukyan ruler Taila II

RAJRAJA(95-1024 A.D.)

  1. His real name was Arumolivarman.

  2. This was the formative period of Chola imperialism

  3. C hola power now possessed a powerful standing army and navy and the administration was more well knit and efficient ; and above all the Chola economic resources also increased a lot.

  4. Mounted naval expedition against Ceylon and Ceylonese king Mahidra V took refuege in the hills of the south –east Ceylon.The capital city Anuradha Pura was destroyed

  5. Gangapadi,Nolambapadi and Tadigaipadi,the important ports(of mysore) were occupied by him.

  6. Followed the policy of attack for defence against the western Chalukyas and order his son Rajendra to invade their territory (in 1007 AD)

  7. Towards the end of his reign,he conquered and annexed Maldives

  8. He completed the construction of the magnificent Shiva temple of Rajarajeshvara at Tanjore in 1010 AD.

  9. He also encouraged Srimana Vijayothengavarman the Sailendra ruler of Srivijaya to build a Buddhist Vihara at Negapatam.this Vihara Called Chudarani Vihara was,after the name of the father of the Srivijayan ruler.

RAJENDRA 1(1014 AD-1042 AD) (THE ZENITH OF CHOLA POWER)

 

  1. Rajendra I invaded and conquered ceylone

  2. Mahindra V of Ceylone was taken prisoner.

  3. Battle of maski was fought between Rajendra I and layasimha II Tungabhadra was recognized as the border of the two empires.

  4. In 1018 AD,he made his son Rajandhiraja Yuvraj,who possessed the throne of Vengi.

  5. Conquered Kalinga

  6. Shifted his capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram.

  7. Leda large naval expedition against the kingdom of Srivijya( to Malaya Perinsula,Sumatra,Java some neighbouring lands) Srivijay acknowledged Chola suzerainty.

  8. Had friendly terms with the ruler of Kamboja.

  9. Had sent embassies to the chines Court in1016 AD in1033 AD and again in 1077 AD

  10. Rajendra I had also raided Dhara,the capital of the Bhoja ruler of Malwa and then extended Chola power on the north across Vidarbha,Kosala and Kalinga.

  11. Died in 1044 AD.

 Rajadhiraja-I

Destroyed the Chalukyan palace in the city of kam pill.

Took victory in the battle of pundair(on the bank of Krishna) on the western Chalukyans.

Constructed the pillar of victory’at Yetagiri.

Sacked Kalyani (the capital of the western Chalukyans) and performed his Virabhisheka and entitled himself as” Vijya Rajendra”

With the help of his younger brother and Yavaraja Rajendra II,fought the battle of Koppam against Somesvara and emerged victorious.

Rajendra II

  1. Crowned himself king on the battlefield of Koppam

  2. Constructed the pillar of victory at Kollapura

  3. Defeated somesvara again in the battle of Kudali.

 Kulattunga

  1. During his reign the Chalukyas ruler Vikramaditya started the Chalukyas Vikram era in 1076 AD

  2. During his reign Vijayabahu’s coronation as the monarch of Sri Lanka(1072-73 AD) occurred.

  3. 1084-85 AD, Vijyabahu’ declared his war with the Cholas ,but conditions compelled him not to do so.

  4. One of the daughters of Kuhettunga I married to the son of Vijyabhau.

  5. He sent a chola embassy of 70 merchants to china in 1077 AD.

  6. In 1090 AD,the king of Srivijya Empire sent an embassy to Kulotungo I

  7. The famous Chola general Kaunakara Tondaiman was sent against Anentvarman Chodagangadeva of kalinga

  8. Titled” Sungam tavirttat”(He who abolished tolls)

Vikrarna Chola

  1. His reign began from 1118 AD for17 years ,he ruled in total peace.

  2. Extended with some additions the temple at Chidannbaram.

  3. Extended the shrine of Rangaratha at Srirangam.

Kuluttunga II 

  1. Continued the renovation and extension of the temple at Chidambaram,but in course of this work he removed the image of Govindraja from the countryard of the Nataraja Shrine and east it into the sea(Ramanujam is said to have recovered it and enshrined it at Tirupati.

  1. It was restored to the original place long after by Ramaraya of Vijayanagar.

Kuluttunga III  (1178-1182 AD)

  1. The last great ruler of the Chola dynasty

  2. Subsequently the Chola and the Chalukya powers declined and the Yadavas of Devagiri,the Hoysalas of Dwarasamadrah and the pandyas rose into prominence in the Deccan and South Indian Politics

  3. The Yadava rose to power at the expense of the Chalukyas

  4. The Pandyas superseded the Cholas

  5. The Hoyasalas remained the most dominant force till Deccan was subjugated by the Delhi sultans.

  6. The Kakatiyas had their dominion centering Warangal

  7. In 1069-70,the last Chola monarch of the line of Parantaka was murdered by rebellious mobs.His name was Adhi Rajendra.

Rajendra III

  1. The last ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra III who ruled till 1267 AD.After this,we hear more of the Turkish presence in south as well.The place of Cholas was taken by Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra and Pandyas of Madurai.

  2. In the later period,the Cholas fought constantly with the Chalukyas of Kalyan as they had succeeded the Rashtrakutas.

  3. After the decline of the Cholas,their place was taken by the Pandyas and the Hoyasalas in south.The place of later Chalukyas was taken by Yadavas and the Kakatiyas.

  4. Hoyasalas and Kakatiyas became active from 12th century onwards.

 

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