1. Alpatgin established an independent kingdom with its capital at Ghazni
  2. Mahmud Ghazni ascended the throne (998-1030) at Ghazni.
  3. Firdausi was the poet laureate at the court of Mahmud
  4. Firdausi wrote Shah nama
  5. Mahmud Ghazni claimed descent from Iranian legendary king Afrasiyab.
  6. Mahmud Ghazni is said to have made 17 raids into india.
  7. The initial raids were directed against the Hindustani rulers.
  8. In 1001 Jayapala, the Hindushahi,ruler was defeated.
  9. Jaypala’s son Anandpal succeeded him to the throne.
  10. The battle of Waihind(1008-1009) was fought between Mahmud and Ananda.
  11. After the battle, Punjab passed into hands of Ghaznavis.
  12. The subsequent raids of Mahmud into india were aimed at plundering the rich temples and cities.
  13. Mahmud Ghazni invaded Kannauj in 1018 and Somnath in 1025 A.D.
  14. Mahmud Ghazni died at Ghazni in 1030 A.D.


  1. The Ghurid empire rose into prominence in North-west Afghanistan.
  2. The Ghurid had started as vassals of Ghazni,but had soon thrown off its yoke.
  3. The power of the Ghurids increased under Sultan Alauddin who earned the title of Jahan-soz(world burner).
  4. In 1173, Shahabuddin Muhammad (Muhammad Ghori) ascended the throne at Ghazni.
  5. By 1190,Muhammad Ghori had conquered Peshawar,Lahore and Stalkot
  6. In india Chauhans had captured Delhi from Tomars.
  7. Conflict between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan started with rival claims for Tabarhinda(Bhatinda).
  8. The First battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 AD
  9. In this battle the Ghori forces were completely routed.Mahmud Life was saved by a young Khalji horseman.
  10. The second battle of Tarain was fought in 1192 A.D.
  11. The battle is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian history.
  12. Prithviraj Chauhan escaped but was Captured near Saraswati.
  13. After Tarain Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni
  14. Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti came with Muhammad Ghori from Afghanistan.
  15. He left the affairs in india in the hands of his trusted slave Qutubbdin Aibak.
  16. In 1194.Muhammad Ghori returned to Delhi.
  17. The battle of Chandawar(1194 A.D.) was fought between Muhammad Ghori and Jaichand.
  18. Jaichandra was defeated in the battle of Chandawar.
  19. The battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundations of Turkish in india.

Delhi Sultanate

The sultanate of Delhi had five ruling dynasties

  1. The llbari-1206-1290 AD
  2. The Khalji-1290-1320 AD
  3. The Tughlaq-1320-1413 AD
  4. The Saiyid -1414-1451 AD
  5. The Lodhis-1451-1526 AD