MAHMUD GAZNI AND ADVENT OF ISLAM IN NORTH

Mahmud Gazni and Advent of Islam in north

Mahmud Gazni

 

  1. Mahmud,son of Subuktugin ,got the title “Yamin-ud Daula Wa Aminul Mulk”

  2. In the 8th and 9th centuries,the Turks got the upper hand over the khalifa of Bagdad

  3. 1st Turkish Muslim to conquer some part of Indian Sub-continent was Alaptgin.

  4. The house of Gazni in Afganistan became powerful under Alaptgin.(A slave of Abdul Malik,the Samanid king of Bokhara),After him,Subuktigin( a slave) who had married his daughter became ruler in 977 AD

  5. It was Subuktigin who brought Gazni into prominence.

  6. The impulse for convulsion that burst upon india was given in the year 979 AD by Jaipal(the prince of Lahore in Punjab).He thought that growing power of Turks under Subuktigin was getting dangerous and thus tried to nip it in the bud.it resulted in a friendly settlement early but when jaipal ,supported the princes of Kannauj and Ajmer,resumed the offensive in 988 AD,they were completely defeated at Lamghan.This was the beginning of the march of Turko-Afgan hordes into india.

  7. Subuktigin established himself at the confluence of Kabul and Indus and thus secured a  base for invasion into india.

  8. He was succeeded by this son islam,who was dethroned in 998 AD by his brother Mahmud of Gazni.

  9. Khalifa Al-Qadir-Billah gave Mahmud of Ghazni a robe of honour and also conferred on him the title of Yamir-ud-Daulah(the Right hand of empire) and Amir-ul-millat.

  10. Utbi was the court historians of Mahmud ,who had written the famous text “Kitab-ul-Yamn”

  11. Firdausi was the most famous poet at the time with Mahmud .He was the author of Shahnama.

  12. Firdausi is called “Homer of the east “

  13. Al-Biruni was also in the court of Mahmud and came along with him to india .later he wrote his observations about india in his work “Kitab-ul-hind “ or “Tehqiq-i hind”

  14. Mahmud had set up a university at Ghazni

  15. Mahmud made many inroads into india in 1030 AD .He was succeeded by masud but from this time on,the successors were troubled by the Seljuk Turks.The Seljuk empire Syria ,Iran and trans-oxiana and contended with the Gaznavids for control over Khorasan.

  16. Toward the middle of 12th century AD, another group of Turkish tribesmen,who were partly Buddhist and partly pagan(non-religious),shattered the power of the Seljuk Turks.In this Vaccum,two new powers rose to prominence-(a) Khwarizmi empire based in iran (b) Ghurid empire based on Ghur in northwest Afganistan.

  17. The Ghurids had started as vassals of Gaznis,but very soon they threw off the yoke.Their power increased under sultan Alauddin who earned the title of “Jahan Soz”(the world burner) as he ravaged Gazni.

  18. Khorasan was bone of contention between two of soon captured by Khwrzmi Shah .This left no option for the Ghurids but to look for expansion towards india

  19. In 1173 AD,Shihabuddin Mohd (1173-1206) also known as Muizzuddin Modh bin Sam,ascended the throne of Gazni.He proceeded by way of Gomal pass captured Multan and Uchch.

Qutubuddin Aibak(1206-1210)

  1. Ghori had no sons.Aibak-governor of Delhi;Tajuddin Yalduz at Ghazni(his daughter married to Qabacha and Aibak);Qabacha  at Multan and Uch; Ikhtiyar   Khalji at Lakhnauti(Bengal)

  2. Aibak received manumission from sultan Ghiasuddin Mahmud of Ghur ,nephew of Md.Ghori before elevation to throne.

  3. He married Yaldauz’s daughter and got his sister married to Qabacha and his daughter to illtutmish.

  4. Died at Lahore playing Chaugan(horse pola)

  5. Called Lakhbaksh or giver of lakhs,as was considered extremely benevolent.

  6. Built mosques-Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque at Delhi and Adhani Din ka Jhopra mosque at Ajmer.

  7. He introduced “Iqta system “ in india that was later expanded by Iltutmish.

Aram Shah

  1. Son of Aibak,

  2. Defeated by Iltutmish

Iltutmish(1211-36)

  1. He was the real founder of Delhi Sultanate.

  2. Was slave(mamluk) of the llbari tribe,began as sar-jandar(head of the royal bodyguard);He defeated Yalduz of Ghazni at Tarain(1215);Qabacha of sind was defeated in 1217 at mansuya,but was kept as a buffer against the Mongols.

  3. In1221, the Khwarizmi ruler Jalaluddin Mangburnu,chased by Chingiz Khan,crossed the Indus.lltutmish refused help and kept Qabacha as buffer.

  4. In1225,Iwaz Khalji,who was virtually independent sultan of Bengal submitted to Iltutmish,later rebelled,and was defeated by llututmish’s son Nasiruddin Mahmud.

  5. After Nasiruddin Mond’s death in1229 ,Bengal revolted again,but was suppressed by lltutmish

  6. In 1226 Ranthambhor recovered.

  7. In 1228,Chauhan chief of Jalor paid tribute.

  8. In 1228,Multan and Sind were annexed after siege of Bhakkar,where Qabacha was drowned.

  9. In 1231-Gwalior under Rai Mangal Deva conquered

  10. In 1234,lltutmish seized Bhilsa,then Ujjain where the Mahakal temple and Vikramaditya statue were destroyed.

  11. In 1229, the Abbas d Caliph Al Mustansir Billah sent a robe of honour and a patent of investiture legitimizing his kingship as sultan-i-Azam(Great Sultan)

  12. Silver coins called Tanka were struck from his time onwards, commencing the sultanate coinage.

Ruknuddin Firuz

  1. Shah Turkhan had her son crowned and unleashed a reign of terror while Firuz sank into licentiousness

  2. In November 1236,after 7 months,his sister Raziya defeated him and sat on the throne

Raziya Sultan(1236-40)

  1. She was the first and last woman ruler of Delhi Sultanate.

  2. Iltutmish had appointed her as his deputy in Delhi .lltutmish’s wazir Nizamul  Mulk Junaydi rebelled and was defeated.

  3. Jamaluddin Yakut(Ethiopian/Abyssinian) was made Amir-i-Akhur(superintended of royal horses)

  4. Altunia Iqtadar of Bhatinda and Sarhind killed Yakut,imprisoned Raziya,and married her when Bahram(iltutmish’s third son) was put on the throne. Their march to Delhi failed and Razia was killed by robbers at Kaithal in Haryana

  5. She used to rule without veil

Nasiruddin Mahmud(1246-66)

  1. Minhaj-us- Siraj dedicated his book “ Tabaqati Nasiri” to him.

  2. Nasiruddin Mahmud was a calligraphist.

  3. It was during him that Balban chastiszed the Khokkars who acted as Mongols guides,that captured Kalinjar,Rarthambhor and Mewat.After this Balban married of his daughter to sultan and was made Naib-i-Mamlakat and awarded title of Ulugh Khan (Great Khan).

  4. In 1253,Imamuddin Raihan,a hindu convert was made wazir and Balban was sent to Nagaur.Turks resentment led to Raihans transfer to Badaun and Balban was brought to Delhi.

  5. In 1260,Halaku’s (mongol II Khan) emissary was received in Delhi

  6. Isami(1350) says Balban poisoned the sultan.

BalBan

  1. Ghiasuddin Balban ushered in the second Ilbari dynasty of Delhi sultanate.

  2. He was purchased by Khwaja Jamaluddin of Bussorah then purchased by Iltutmish and made Khasdar(personal attendant),then governor of Nagpur and later Naib to Mahmud.

  3. A Naib he used the royal insignia,the Chattr.

  4. He recognized th Diwan –i- Arz(military Deptt.) destroyed Mewati Rajput brigandage in Alwar; brigandage in the doab where forests were cut and forts were built at kampali,Patiali and Bhojpur;punished rebels in Katehar,built fort at Gopalgir.

  5. He perceived that the real thread to the monarchy came from the Turkish nobles scramble for power.Hence,he sought to increase the prestige and power of the monarchy by curbing the power of the nobles.

  6. He held a magnificient court, bodyguard withdrawnswords;no jokes and laughter in court;he stopped drinking wine(so nobody would see him in a non-serious mood),

  7. He claimed descent from Afrasiyab(the legendary Iranian hero);he started the Iranian practice of Sijda and Paibos(prostration and kissing of the monarchs feet ) an un-islamic practice accepted by the nobles/ulema,since Delhi was one of the Islamic states not destroyed by the Mongols

  8. Non-Turks(i.e Indian Muslims) excluded from government office and base born were publicly abhorred.

  9. Impartial and ruthless justice was used as tool to strengthen the monarchy. Governors were not spared and centralization was sought.Only the most servile nobleman and Commanders survived Maliq Baqdaq,governor of Badaun was publically flogged for beating a servant to death.Malik Hayabat Khan,governor of Avadh was flogged for killing a man while drunk and handed to the victim’s wife to dispose off as she wished. Sher Khan Sunqar,the ambitious governor of Bhatinda was poisoned.

  10. He destroyed the Chahalganis( a group of forty nobles created by Iltutmish) power.

  11. Kept friendly relationship with Halaku and lavishly received his envoys. Major parts of Punjab and Sindh left tacitly in their hands

  12. In 1275,Malik Tughril, governor of Bengal rebelled.Malik Mui Daraaz Amin Khan,governor of Avadh failed to defeat Tughril and was hanged.Balban with prince Bughra Khan(then ruling Sunam and Samana)with help of Rai Danuja-Madhava Deva,the local ruler,destroyed Tughril’s rebellion.He then appointed Bughra Khan as governor of Bengal.Qazi Fakruddin was at that time kotwal of Delhi.

  13. In 1279,Chaghtai Mongols were defeated by prince Mahmud ,Bughra Khan and Malik Bektars.

  14. In 1285,Mongols under tamar were repulsed by prince Mahmud(Khan-l-sahid) who was killed in the battle.

  15. Known for his theory of Kingship

Kaiqubad

  1. Bughra Khan did not want to come to the throne of Delhi Sultanate, so Balban appointed Kaykhusraw,sultan Mahmud’s son as successor.

  2. On Balban’s death,Fakruddin Kotwal raised Kaiqubad,son of Bughra Khan to the throne,while Bughra Khan remained Sultan of Bengal.

  3. Malik Nizamuddin,Fakruddins nephew/son-in-law became defacto ruler,killed kai Khusrau and beheaded leading nobles.

Kaymurs

 

  1. Kaiqubad was struck by paralysis and the Turkish nobles placed his infant son kaymurs on the throne

  2. The Khalji nobles revolted and killed kaymurs,the last Ilbari. This ushersed in what is known as”Khilji revolution”