The Lodi Dynasty
Bahlol Lodhi: (1451-1526 AD):-
1. Bahlol Lodhi was one of the Afghan Sardars.He established himself in Punjab after the invasion of Tamur.
2. He founded the Lodhi Dynasty.
- Sikander Lodi was the son of Bahlol Lodhi who conquered Bihar and western Bengal.
- He shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra ,a city founded by him.
- Sikandar was a fanatical Muslim and broke the sacred images of the Jwalamukhi Temple at Nagar kot and ordered the temple of Mathura to be destroyed.
- He took a keen interest in the development of agriculture .He introduced the Gaz-i-Sikandari (Sikandar’s yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
- He was the last king of the Lodhi Dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.
- He was the son of Sikander Lodhi.
- The Afghan nobility was brave and freedom loving people but it was because of its fissiparous and individualistic tendencies that the Afghan monarchy was weakened. Morever,Ibrahim Lodhi asserted the absolute power of the sultan.As a result,some of the nobles turned against him.
- At last Daulat Khan Lodhi,the governor of Punjab ivited babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi,Babur accepted the offer and inflicated a crushing defeat in Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526.Ibrahim Lodhi was killed in the battle normal and with him ended the Delhi sultanate.
Causes of Decline of Delhi Sultanate:-
The main causes were:-
- Despotic and military type of government .which did not have the confidence of the people
- Degeneration of Delhi Sultan(esp.the wild projects of Muhammad –bin -Tughlaq,incompetence of Firoz Tughlaq.
- War of succession as there was no fixed law of succession.
- Greed and incompetency of nobles.
- Defective military organization
- Vastness of empire and poor means of communication
- Financial instability.
- Number of slaves increased to 180000 in Firoz Tughlaq time ,which was the burden on the treasury
- Invasion of Timur.
Administration under Delhi Sultanate
- Turkish Sultan in india declared themselves Lieutenant of the faithful i.e of the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad and included his name in Khutba. it did not mean that the caliph became the legal ruler. The Caliph had only a moral position.
- Political ,legal and military authority was vested in the sultan.He was responsible for administration and also the commander-in- chief of the military forces.
- No clear law of Succession developed among Muslim rulers.Thus military strength was the main factor in succession to the throne.
Art and Architecture under Delhi Sultanate
1.The new features brought by the Turkish conquerors were: (i)The dome (ii) the lofty towers (iii)the true arch unsupported by beam. (iv)the vault
2.The Adhai-din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer has a beautiful prayer hall, an exquisitely carved Mehrab of white marble and a decorative arch screen
3.The first example of true or voussoired arch is said to be the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Balban in Mehrauli (Delhi).
4.In the Khilji period the usage of Voussoired arch and dome was established and for all. Famous example is the Tomb of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia at Delhi.
5.The Tughlaq building show stark simplicity and sobriety,probably indicating less financial resources as well as puritanical tests.Slopping walls and a dark appearance characterize the buildings.Some noteable Tughlaq moments were the fort of Tughlaquabad,the tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq which marked a new phase in indo Islamic architecture by serving as a model for later tombs and the fort of Adilabad.
6.The Sayyid period was short to allow construction of elaborate buildings.
7.The construction of double domes was the main features of Lodhi One building worth noting is the Moth Ki Masjid by the prime minister of Sikander Lodhi