LATER VEDIC PERIOD

LATER VEDIC PERIOD

LATER VEDIC PERIOD

LATER VEDIC PERIOD:-

  1. The period assigned to later vedic phase is 1000 B.C. to 600 B.C.

  2. These communities used a particular kind of pottery called the  painted Grey Ware (PGW).

  3. More than 700 PGW sites have been found in upper Ganga basin .Some important PGW site are –Atranji  khera, Ahichhatra,Noh,Hastinapur,Kurukshetra ,Bhagwanpura and Jakhera.

  4. Iron objects are common to most PGW site .This metal was introduced around 1000-800 B.C.It is mentioned as Ayas.

  5. In Later Vedic Period Soceity was clearly divided into four varnas namely- Brahmin,Kshatriya,Vaishya and Sudras.

  6. The upper three classes were known as Dvji (twice born).

  7. Education begin with investiture ceremony (upanayana).

  8. Sometime girls are also initiated.women lost importance.

  9. Gotra first appear in Atharvaveda with the meaning of clan.

  10. In Later Vedic Period there was practice of class exogamy.

  11. There was reference of Sati but not in common fashion . There were instances of child marriage.

  12. Indra and Agni lost their importance .Prajapati(the creator) became supreme.

  13. Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of people.

  14. Pushan became God of Shudras.

  15. Sacrifice became more importance and elobrate .

  16. There were 33 deities during later vedic period.

  17. The king ‘s influence was strengthened by rituals.

  18. Rajasuya conferred supreme power on king.

  19. Chariot racing was the main sport and gambling was the main pastime.

  20. Vajapeya was the horse sacrifice.

  21. Aswamedha was the horse sacrifice.

  22. Kings were known with different name in different region.

  23. Eastern kings were called Samrat.

  24. Western kings were called Svarat.

  25. Northern kings were called virat.

  26. Southern kings were called Bhoja

  27. Kings of middle country called Raja

  28. Earliest evidence of medicine comes from Atharvaveda.

  29. Parikshit has been called as the kings of ‘Mrituloka in Atharvaveda.

  30. Kings used to visit the house of Ratnin in Ratnavimshi ceremony.

  31. A regular army was maintained for the protection of the kingdom.

  32. Atharvaveda mentions Sabha and Samiti as daughters of Prajapati.

  33. According to kathak Samhita 24 oxen were employed for agriculture.

  34. During later vedic period Prajapati came to occupy the supreme position.

  35. Pushan was the God of Shudras.

  36. Rudra was the God of animal.

  37. Institution of Gotra appeared during later vedic period

  38. Duties of four varnas are given in Aatreya Brahamana.

  39. Three roomed mud house has been discovered at Bhagwanpura.

  40. Largest deposit of iron weapon have been found at Atranjikhera.

  41. Two furnaces for iron smelting have been found at Suneri village in Jhunjhunu district.

  42. Legend of Videha Madhav is mentioned in Saapatha Brahamana.

  43. Eight forms of marriages are given in Ashvalahayan Grihyasutra.

  44. Satapatha Brahamana says that wife is half her husband.

  45. In Later Vedic Period Women enjoyed freedom and respect but their  status deteriorated compared to the early vedic period.

  46. Earliest clear reference to the four ashrams is given in Jabala Upnished.

THE VEDIC LITERATURE

  1. The word veda is derived from the sanskrit word ‘vidi’ meaning to know or knowledge par excellence.

  2. Vedic texts are divided between Sruti (based on hearing),which is distinct fom Smriti(based on memory).

  3. Four vedas and their Samhitas ,the Brahmanas,the Aranyakas and the upanishads form a classof literature known as Sruti.

RIG VEDA

  1. Rig Veda  is divided into 10 Books or Mandalas. Books II and Book VII are considered the oldest .Book VIII and X seem to be later additions.

  2. A Collection of 1028 hymns of a number of priestly families.

  3. Written between 1700-1500 B.C. when Aryans were still in punjab.

  4. Books II to VII are earliest and are also called as family books .They are attributed to Gritsamada visvamitra,vasudeva,Atri,Bhardwaj,Vashishtha,Kanva and Angiras

  5. The IX mandala is dedicated exclusively to soma.

  6. The singer of the Rigveda is called the Hotra.

  7. The X Mandala contains the famous purushsukta hymn that explains the origin of four varnas.Gayatri Mantra is the most sacred hymnn of Rigveda.Mentioned in 3rd mandal written by viswamitra.

YAJUR VEDA

  1. A ritualistic veda.

  2. Yajur Veda is divided into shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajur veda.

  3. Written in prose.it deals with procedure for performance of sacrifices and contains rituals as well as hymns

  4. The singer of Yajur veda called Ardhavayu.

SAMA VEDA

  1. Sama veda derives its root from Saman,which means a melody.

  2. A Collection of melodies.

  3. A Collection of 1603 hymns .Except 99 all other are derived from Rigveda.it contains the Dhrupada Raga.

  4. The singer of the Sama veda is called Udgata.

 ATHARVA VEDA

  1. A collection of 711 hymns .It is divided into 20 Khandas

  2. Atharva Veda is the latest veda.

  3. Atharva veda is a book of magical formula medicinal treatises etc.

  4. It contains charm s and spell to ward off evil and disease.

  5. Its content throws light on the practices of non Aryans.

  6. In Atharva veda,Sabha and samiti are described as uterine sisters-the two daughter of prajapati.

  7. This veda is also known as Brahma veda.

 

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