IMPORTANT NOTES ON SANGAM PERIOD OF ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY

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sangam period

Sangam Period

  1. In Southern india the period between the 1st century B.C. to the end of 2nd century A.D. is known as Sangam Period.

  2. Sangam period named after the Sangam academies during that period.

  3. In the ancient South India,There were three Sangams(Academy of Tamil poets ) which is popularly called Muchchangam. These Sangams became famous under the royal support of the Pandya kings of Madurai.

  4. The First Sangam held at Madurai, The Second Sangam  at Kapadapuram, and the Third Sangam was held at Madurai .

  5. A few of these Tamil literary works have survived and are a useful sources to reconstruct the history of the Sangam period.

Sangam periiod Literature

Sangam was a assembly of Tamil poets which was held probably under royal support of pandyan kings in Madurai. According to practice, the assembly lasted for 9990 years and  it was attended by 8,598 poets and 197 pandyan kings.

Political History of Sangam Period

During the Sangam Age, it was ruled by three dynasties-the Pandya,chola and chera.

The Pandyas(Emblem-Fish)

  1. The Pandyas were first mentioned by Megasthanese,who said that their kingdom was famous for pearls.

  2. The Pandyan territory included modern district of Tirunelevelli,Ramnad and Madurai in Tamil Nadu.It had its capital at Madurai,situated on the bank of Vaigai river.

  3. The Pandyan Kingdom profited from trade ith roman empire and sent emissaries to roman emperors.Augustus and Trojan.

  4. The Pandyas find mention in the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

  5. Mudukudumi was the earliest known Pandyan ruler , who ruled from Madurai,he accused kovalan of theft. As the result of which the city of Madurai was laid under the curse by kannagi(kovalan’wife).

The Cholas (Emblem-Tiger)

  1. The Cholas kingdom wascalled as Cholamandalam  situated to the north-east of Pandya kingdom between Pennar and Vellar rivers. The Chola kingdom corresponded to modern Tanjore and Tiruchiranpalli districts.

  2. Its inland capital was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade. The main sources of wealth for cholas was also trade in cotton cloth.

  3. Puhar ,identical with kaverippattinam was the main port of cholas and served as alternative capital of cholas.

  4. The earliest known chola kingdom was Elara,who in 2ndcentury BC conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for nearly 50 years.

  5. Their greatest king was karikala (man with charred leg) who founded puhar and constructed 160 km of embankment along the kaveri river.

  6. They maintained an efficient navy.

  7. The Cholas were wiped out by the attack of pallavas from north.

The Cheras (Emblem-Bow)

  1. The Chera country taken the portion of both Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

  2. The capital of Cheras was Vanji.

  3. It main ports were muzris and tondi.the Romans set up two regiments at muzris(identical with Cranganore ) in Chera country.They also built a temple of Augustus at Muzris.

  4. One of the earliest and better known chera rulers was udiyangeral.

  5. He was the founder of the famous Pattini cult related to worship of goddess of chastity-Kannagi.

Sangam period Administration

The king was the center of administration.He was called Ko Mannan,Vendan,korravaan or iravian.Avai was the court of crowned monarch.

Officials:-

Amaichhar-Ministers

Purohitar-Purohits

Dutar-Envoys

Senapatiyar-Senapati

Orrar-Spics

The Kingdom was divided into Mandalam,Nadu(province),Ur(town),Sirur(small Village,perur(Big Village)

Revenue Administration

Karai               Land Tax

Irat                  Tribute paid by feudatories and booty collected in war.

Ulgu                Customs Duties

Iravu                Extra Demand or forced gift

Variyam          A well know unit of territory yielding  tax

Variyar            Tax collector

Economy of the Sangam Period

  1. Agriculture was the main occupation in sangam period,where rice was the most common crop.

  2. The handicraft included weaving, stones and ivory ,metal works and carpentry, ship building and making of ornaments using beads,.

  3. In the internal and external trade , These were in great demand of all above products as this was at its peak during the Sangam period.

  4. There was a high expertise in spinning and weaving of cotton and silk clothes.

  5. Puhar, the port city  became an important place of foreign trade, as big ships entered this port containing costly goods.

  6. Other significant ports of commercial activity were Tondi, Musiri, Korkai, Arikkamedu and Marakkanam.

  7. Augustus, Tiberius and Nero were gold and silver coins that were issued by the Roman Emperors  and have been found in all parts of Tamil Nadu indicating flourishing trade.

  8. Cotton fabrics and spices like pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon and turmeric along with ivory products, pearls and precious stones were Major exports of the Sangam age.

  9. Horses, gold, and sweet wine were Major imports for the traders.