Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur was the founder of the Mughal empire in india.Babur was the king of Farghana in Afghanistan.
- The foundation of Mughal rule in india was laid by Babur in 1526
- He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother.
- Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat on April 21,1526 and establish Mughal Dynasty which lasted till the established of British rule in india.
- In 1527,he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at
- In 1528,he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at
- In 1529,he defeated Muhammmad Lodhi(uncle of Ibrahim Lodi) at
- In 1530,he died at Agra.His tomb is at Kabul.
- He adopted Tughluma and flanking party system and first to use gunpower and artillery in india.
- He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki in which he gives an excellent account of india and his empire .Tuzuk-i- Baburi was translated in Persian (named Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khanekhana and in English by Madam Bebridge.
- He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan(in Turki)| and Mubaiyan (in Persian).He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babur.
Humayun: (1530-1540 and 1555-56)
- He was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530.His succession was challenged by his brother Kamran,Hindal and Askari alongwith,the Afgans.
- He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj/Bilgram(1540) and was completely defeated by him.
- He escaped to iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile.
- After Sher Shah’s death Humayun invaded india in 1555 and defeated his brothers of Afgans.He once again became the ruler of india.
- He died while climbing down the stairs of his library a (Din Panah) in 1556 and was burried in Delhi.
- His sister, Gulbadan Begum, wrote his biography Humayunama.
- He built Din Panah at Delhi as his second capital.
Sur Empire(second Afghan Empire):1540-55
- He was the son of Hasan Khan,the Jagirdar of Sasaram,Ibrahim Lodhi transferred his father’Jagir to him.
- In 1527-28,he joined Babur’s service and then returned to south Bihar as deputy governor and guardian of the minor king Jalal Khan Lohani,son of Bahar Khan Lohani.
- Sher Shah usurps throne as Hazarat –i-Ala. He gained Chunar by marrying Lad Malika,the widow of governor of Chunar Fort.
- In 1539,he defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and assumed the title Sher Shah as emperor.
- In 1540 ,he defeated Humayuna in the battle of Kannauj/Bilgram and annexed Kannauj.
- As an Emperor,he conquested Malwa (1542),Ranthambhor (1542),Raisin(1543),Rajputana-annexation of Marwar (1542),Chittor (1544)and Kalinjar (1545).He died in 1545 while conquesting Kalinjar.
- During his brief reign of 5 years he introduced a brilliant administration,land revenue policy and several other measures to improve the economic conditions of his subjects.
- He issued the coin called Rupia and fixed standard weights and measures all over the empire.
- He also improved communications by building several highways. He built the Grand Trunk Road(G.T Road),that runs from Calcutta to Peshwar.
- He set Up cantonment in various parts of his empire and strong garrison was posted in each cantonments
- He introduced the principle of local responsibility and local crimes Muqaddams were punished for failture to find culprits.
- Land was measured and 1/3 rd of the average was fixed as land tax. The peasant was given a patta (title deed) and a qabuliyat (deed of agreement ) which fixed the peasant’s rights and taxes.Zamindar were removed and taxes were directly collected.
- He built Purana Qula at Delhi.
- He was buried in Sasaram.
- Sher Shah was succeeded by Islam Shah (1545-54);Islam Shah by Muhammad Adil Shah(1554-55).
- Akbar,the eldest son of Humayun ,ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi at the young age of 14 at Kalanaur,Punjab and his tutor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
- Second Battle of panipat(5 november 1556):- was fought between Hemu ( the Hindu General of Muhammad Adil Shah) and Bairam Khan (the regent of Akbar . Hemu was defeated,captured and slain by Bairam Kan
- This war ended the Mughal Afgan contest for the throne of Delhi favour of Mughal and enabled Akbar to reoccupy Delhi and Agra.
- Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in 1560 and at the age of 18 assumed the reigns of the Kingdom
- Akbar was under the influence of Maham Anga and Adham Khan Junta from 1560 to 1562.
- In his bid to expand his empire he conquered various provincial states
- The Rajputa kingdom of Mewar put up a fierce defence under Rana Uday Singh (1537-72)and his son Rana Pratap(1572-97).
- Akbar tried to win over the Rajputas wherever possible and inducted Rajput king into Mughal service and treated them at par with mughals nobility.By marrying Harakha Bai daughter of Bharmal/Biharimal(kutchhwaha Rajput Ruler of Amer,capital-jaipur_
- In 1562.Akbar displayed his secular policy with the Hindus.Most of the Rajput Kings recognized the supremacy of Akbar except Rana Pratap Singh and his son Amar Singh (Sisodiya Rajputs of Mewar.Capital Chittor).
- The battle of Haldigatti(1576) was fought between Rana Pratap of Mewar and Mughals army led by Man singh of Amer .Rana Pratap defeated but he did not submit and continued the struggle.
- As a revolt against the orthvodoxy and bigotry of religious priests .Akbar proclaimed a new religion Din-i-IIahi,In 1581.The new religion was based on a synthesis of Values taken from several religions like Hinduism,Islam,Jainism and Christianity.it did not recognize the prophet,Birbal was the only Hindu who followed this new religion.Din-I-Illahi,however did not became popular.
- Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri,Agra Fort,Lahore Fort and Allahabad Fort and also Humayun’s fort at Delhi.
- He was patron of the art and in his court many person flourished.
- Salim,Son of Akbar came to the throne after Akbar Death in 1605.He issued 12 Ordinance.
- He is known for his strict administration of Justice. He established Zanjir-i- Adal (i.e Chain of Justce) at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
- In 1611,Jahangir Married Mihar-un-nisa widow of Sher Afghan,a Persian nobleman of Bengal.Later on She was given the title Nur jahan.Nurjahan excercised tremendous influence over the state affairs,She was made the official Padshah Begum.
- Jahangir issued a coins jointly in Nurjahan’s name and his own.
- Jahangir also married Manmati/Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai of Marwar and a Kachhwaha princess.
- In 1608,Captain Willian Hawkins a representative of east india company came to Jahagir’s court.He was given the manasab of 400 .In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe an ambassador of king james I of England also came to his court.through initially Jahangir resisted ,later on he granted permission to the English to establish a trading port surat.
- A political triumph during Jahangir reign was the submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar (1615).Jahangir captured the strong fort of Kangara (1620).A part of Ahmadnagar was also annexed.Malik Amber ceded back to the mughals the territory of the Balalghat(Maharastra
- His reign was marked by several revolts.His sonKhusrau,who received patronage of 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev revolted against Jahangir(1605). Arjun Dev was later sentenced to death for his blessing to the rebel prince (1606).During his last period Khurram (Shahjahan)) son odf Jahangir,and Mahavat Khan military general of Jahangir also revolted(Khurram:1622-25 and Mahavat Khan:1626-27
- He wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahaangir in Persian
- He was buried in Lahore.
- Mother ‘s name –Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai (daughter of Raja Jagat Singh)
- Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his fathers death
- He was best known for his Deccan and his foreign policies
- The first thing that he has to face his revolt in Bundelkhand (Jhujhar Singh Bundela of Orchh:1628-35)| and the Deccan(khan-i-Jahan Lodhi,the governor of Deccan (1629-31).
- Three years after his accession ,his beloved wife Mumtaj Mahal(original name-Arzumand Bano) died in 1631.To perpetuate her memory he built the Taj Mahal, at Agra in 1632-53.
- In 1631-32,he defeated the Portuguese.
- In addition to Jahangir’s empireNizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar was brought under mughal control (1633) by Shahjahan.The Deccan Sultanate of Bijapur and Golconda accepted his suzreignty in 1636.
- He sent his army to Balkh in order to secure the defence of north –western india(1647).Shahjahan who had recovered Kandhar (Afganistan) in 1638 from the Iranians lost it again in 1647 despite three campaigns under prince murad,Aurangzeb and Dara.
- ShahJahan’s reign id described by French traveler Bernier and Tavernier and the Italian traveller Nicoli Manucci,Peter Mundi described the famine that occurred during the Shahjahan’s time.
- Shahjahan’s reign is said to have marked the pinnacle of the mughal dynasty and empire .He is known for the promotion of art,culture and artichecture during his time..The Red fort,Jama Masjid and Taj Mahal are some of the magnificient structures built during this reign.
- Shahjahan’s failing health set off he war of succession among his four sons in 1657.Aurangzeb emerged the victor who crowned himself in july 1658.Shahjahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb in the Agra Fort where he died in Captivity in 1666.He was buried at Taj (Agra)
- Aurangzeb Defeated Dara at Dharmat (1658),Samugarh (1658) and Deorai in which Samugarh was decisive one and Deorai was last one.
- After victory.Aurangzeb was crowned at Delhi under the title Alamgir.He ruled for 50 years till his death in Feb,1707 in Ahmadnagar.
- During the first 23 years of the rule (1658-81)Aurangzen concentrated on north india.During this period the Marathas under Shivaji rose to power and were a force to reckon with.
- Auranzeb Captured Guru Teg Bahadur,the ninth Guru of Sikhs in 1675 and executed him when he refused to embrace islam.the 10th and last Sikh Guru,Guru Govind Singh,son of Guru Teg Bahadur,organized his followers into militant force called Khalsa to fight the Muslim tyranny and avenge the murder of his father .Guru Govind Singh was however murdered in 1708 by an Afgan at an nander in deccan.Banda,Bairagi,the militant successor of Guru Govind Singh continued the war against mughals.
- Aurangzeb left the north in 1682 and for the next 25years ?(1682-1707) made desperate bids to crush the Marathas.
- Shivaji was the most powerful Maratha King and an arch enemy of Aurangzeb.when Aurangzeb could not eliminate Shivaji. He conspired in 1665 with jai singh of Amber,a Rajput to eliminate Shivaji.On a assurance given by Jai Singh,Shivaji visited Aurangzeb court.Shivaji was imprisoned by Aurangzeb but he managed to escape and in 1674 proclaimed himself an independent monarch.He died in 1680 and was succeeded by his son Sambhaji,who was executed by Aurangzeb in 1689.Sambhaji was succeeded by his brother Rajaram and after his death in 1700 ,his widow Tarabhai carried on the movements.
- The mughals conquests reached a climax during Aurangzeb’s reign,as Bijapur and Golconda were ammexed in 1686 and 1687 ,respectively.
- Aurangzeb died in 1707.He buried at Khuldabed(Daulatabad).
- He was called Zinda Pi,the living saint.
- Jaziya was re-introduced.However,the Hindu Mansabdars maintained their high proportion during his rule.
Decline of Mughals
After Aurangzeb,the Mughals empire rapidly declined.Important causes of Decline were:-
- Aurangzeb’s Rajputa,Deccan and religious
- Weak successors who were in competent both as administration and generals
- War of Succession
- Factionalism among nobility after Aurangzeb
- Jagirdari crises
- Growth of Maratha and other regional power in Bengal,Hyderabad,Avadh,Mysore etc.Foreign invasions by Nadir Shah(1739) and Abdali
- British conquest of india
- Bahabur Shah I:-Original name-Muazzam,Title-Shah Alam I.
- Jahandarshah (1712-1713):-Ascended the throne with help of Zulfikar Khan;Abholised Jaziya
- Farrukh Siyar(1713-1719):- Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers-Abduall and Hussain Khan
- Muhammad Shah|(1719-748): In 1738-39,Nasir Shah raised india and took away Thakht-i-Taus(the peacock throne) and Kohinoor Diamond.
- Ahmad Shah(1748-1754): Ahmad Shah Abdali(General of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.
- Alamgir II(1754-1759):-Ahmad Shah occupied Delhi,Later,Delhi was plundered by Marathas.
- Shah Alam II(1759-1806):Nazib Khan became very powerful in Delhi so much so that he could not enter Delhi for 12 years.
- AkbarII(1806-1837):-Pensioner of east idia company.
- Bahadur Shah II(1837-1857):-Last mughal emperor who made premier during 1857 revolt.He was deported to Rangoon (Burma,now Mayanmar) in 1858 ,where he died in 1862