EARLY VEDIC PERIOD IN INDIA

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Vedic period in india

Vedic Period in india

Period: Iron Age
Followed by: Brihadrathas dynasty, Haryanka dynasty, Mahajanapadas
Geographical range: South Asia
Preceded by: Indus Valley Civilisation

  1. It generally agreed that Vedic period in india was began when Aryans who were originally lived somewhere in steppes region stretching from southern Russia to central Russian

  2.  It was believed that originally they lived somewhere in the East of alps.

  3. On their way to india. Aryans first appeared in iran and little after 1500 BC,they appeared in india

  4. Kassite inscription from about 1600 BC and mittani inscription from 1400 BC found in Iraq bear some Aryan names,which suggest that from Iraq the branch of Aryans move westwards

  5. Rig veda has very similar to Avesta-the oldest text in Iranian language

  6. Rigveda is the earliest Specimen of any indo –European Language

  7. According to Rig veda early Aryans first settled in the region called “Sapta-Sindhava” or the land of seven rivers encompassing the present day east Afganistan,Punjab and west UP.

  8. As they settle down in villages they also became cultivators,using ox to draw their ploughs

  9. During later vedic phase,the Aryans moved from their early settlements to the Ganga-Yamuna Doab

  10. The Ramayana has partly unfolded the tale of Aryan advent into the south

Rig Vedic Polity

  1. The chief was the protector of tribes and jana.

  2.  However,he did not have unlimited powers as he had to consider with the tribal assemblies

  3. Sabha,Samiti,Vidhata and Gana were the tribal assemblies.of these,Vidhatas was the oldest.These assemblies excercised deliberative,military and religious functions.

  4.  There were very less  non –monarchical states(also known as ganas),whose head was ganapati .

Rig Vedic Soceity

  1. Based on relationship, the early Aryan society was basically tribal and egalitarian.

  2.  People owned their primary loyalty to their tribe,which was called jana.

  3.  The family was generally patriarchal and birth of son was desired.

  4.  The family was large unit indicated by a common word for son,grandson,nephew and one word for paternal and maternal grandfather.

  5.  Rashtra(Kingdom)had come into existence.

Rid Vedic religious 

  1. Believed in one Supreme God.

  2.  Did not believe in idol worship.

  3.  Vedic Gods have been divided into 3 parts – Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Celestial.

  4.  Yama, Usha, aditi Soma Indra, Agni, Marut, Dyaus Varuna, Surya, Rudra, Vayu and Prajanaya. Prithvi, Saraswati, Usha, aditi were female deities. They were not given the  equal or same position as male Gods.

  5.  People did not worship for spiritual reasons but for the welfare ofPraja & Pashu.

  6.  chanting of Vedic hymns, recitation of prayers and sacrifices or yajnas were an important part of the worship.

Rig Vedic god

Indra:- He was the most important divinity. Total 250 hymns are attributed to indra.He was the Aryans warlord and also controlled the weather.He has been called purandhar or destroyer of the forts.

Agni:- He was the second important divinity. He was mediator between Gods and men

Varuna:- He was the supporter of Rita or cosmic order or natural order. He personified water.
Soma:- He was supposed to be the God of plants. An intoxicant drink was also called soma.
Yama:- the first man to die ,who became the guardian of the word of the dead
Surya:-Surya is  Similar to the  Greek God Helios
Savitri:- The Gayatri mantra is called Savitri
Pushan:- Lord of jungle path, main function was that of guarding of roads, herdsmen and cattle.
Vishnu:- A relatively minor God at that time.
Vayu:- Wind God
Dyaus:-Father of Heavan
Aditi:-Goddess of eternity
Maruts:- Storm Spirits
Gandharvas:- Divine Musicians
Ashvins:- Healers of various diseases and masters in surgical art
Ribhus:- Ribhus is called  Gnomes
Apsaras:- Apsaras was Mistresses of Gods
Rudra:- Rudra was an archer of God.
Vishvadeva:- Intermediate Deities
Aranyani:- Goddess of Forest
Usha:- Goddess of Dawn
Prithvi:- Goddess of Earth

Position of women

  1. in vedic period in india.Women had attended Sabha and Vidhata in Rig Vedic times.

  2.  Women were respected  in society.They could attend tribal assemblies.

  3. They took part in sacrifies alongwith their husbands.There are no example of child marriage.Age of marriage is 16-17 years.

  4.  We also get evidence of remarriage and practice of niyoga in which childless widow would co-habit with her brother in law until the bith of a son.

  5. In Vedic period in india ,Monogamy was follow.However,polygamy and polyandry were also known

Points to be remember

  1. Vedic Period in india came after Indus valley civilization.

  2. Aryans first settled in the Afghanistan, Punjab,Uttar Pradesh(west-north side of India) mainly in the land of of seven rivers.

  3. During Vedic Period time there were no big kingdoms. People lived in the tribes or small kingdoms. Kulapati is the head of family, grammi is the head of village.

  4. Women had a respectable place in the society. They also had the equal right for education and  they were also participate in religious ceremonies.

  5. In Vedic Period in india, cattle were used as currency. Gold and silver were used to make jewellery. the main profession were  Agriculture and cattle rearing at that time.

  6. At that time four fold caste system ( brahmin, kshatriyas, vaishyas, shudras ) was existed. Brahmins were priest, teachers. Kshatriyas were rulers, soldiers. Vaishyas were traders. Shudras were workers.