What is geography ?
The branch of knowledge which connects the study of natural world to that of society is called Geography.
It is the framework of various fields of study which cover origin and development of universe ,landscapes and its natural environment and pressure created over them, the global and local changes in the world and how and unto what extend the society is contributing in these changes.
Eratosthenes, Greek Scholar is first man to discuss about geography. It is the combination of two greek words ‘Geo’ means earth and ‘graphy’ means write.
The Geography means to write about earth and its descriptions.
Branches of Geography
There are various branches of Geography:-
Systematic and Regional Geography.
This is the branch of geography in which we studies relief, soil and structure of the earth.
It is divided into a number of branches making subject matter of geography more comprehensive.
Geomorphology:-it is the Study of the earth’s structure,the rocks that structure the earth and relief features like mountains and plains and their evolution.
Geology:- is the science of the study of rocks,and is helpful to the study of glaciers
Glaciology:-is concerned withstudy of glaciers.
Seismology:-is the study of earthquakes and their bearings on internal structure of the earth.
Hydrology:-is the study of characterstics of rivers,lakes fluvial morphology,fluctuation of water table and underground water resources,development and changes of costal features.
Oceanography:-is the branch of hydrology,it is the study of ocean,tides waves and the ocean floor.
Climatology:-studies the causes and distribution of temperature and winds , rainfall,runoff weather and climate.
Pedology:-is the study of soil science. Soil, which is created due to the effect of complex physical and chemical reaction of parent rock materials ,it also needs the support of other sciences like biology, geology and chemistry.
Biogeography:-is the study of distribution of flora(plant) and fauna(animal) in various parts of the world.
Paleography:-is the study of physical geography in the past geological ages. it is the study of the distribution of land and sea through successive geological times.
Human geography is also known as a branch of the modern geography, deals with development of human beings.
It is divided into various parts:-
Economic geography:-it deals with man’s activities in improving his material through economic production,exchange distribution and consumption of useful goods and services,that human groups and their member need.
Cultural Geography:-it deals with cultural aspects of human’s habitat, clothing, food, shelter, skills ,tools, language, religions, social organization and his outlook.
Historical Geography:-It explains geographical images of a region or area. it gives us important sign in understanding of the regions as it is viewed at present.
Anthrogeography:-Discuss the distribution of human communities on the earth in context of their geographical environment.
Demography:-Studies the different aspects of population like birth rate, death rate, age composition of the population and sex composition.
Settlement Geography:-It studies about the size, form and function of settlement of human beings and define their historic growth.
Agriculture geography:-it studies about farms and farming system have developed in particular areas and how they are different or similar to the farms and farming systems of other are.
Urban Geography:-Study of urban geography is based on the concepts of location interaction and accessibility as well as distribution and movement population.
Political Geography:- it study about the government states and countries ,it studies human social activities, which is concerned to the location and boundaries of cities, nation and groups of nations.
Systematic and Regional Geography
In systematic geography, we choose any geographical factor and study its distribution for the whole world. Climate, vegetation, agriculture, industry, relief, drainage, soil, minerals wealth, transport, trade and commerce and population are some of the important geographical elements.With reference these elements are studied separately to a particular area. This method of studying is also known as ”Topical Approach”. This is also known as Central Geography.
Regional Geography aims to identifies geographical factors or components of any area.Regional geography helps us in identifying the region.
It is the science and art of drawing maps and chats on selected scale.
It is most similar of maps and interpretation and also describes statical data.