Classification of Organism
There are millions of organisms. it is impossible to study each individual separately.Classsification means to categories organism into different groups. Study of an individual of a group gives us the idea of rest of the member of the group.
Linnaeus (known as father of taxonomy) divides all organism into two kingdoms
But this division cannot explain the position of organism like bacteria,virus,fungi and euglena,there is need of reconsideration of system of classification
Five Kingdom Classification
Five Kingdom Classification was proposed in 1969 by R.H.Whittaker. The Criteria of classifying organism into five kingdoms are its complexity of cell structure, complexity of body of organism, mode of nutrition .life style and phylogenetic relationship.
Monera:- It includes all prokaryotic organism like bacteria,cynobacteria and archiobacteria. Filamentous bacteria also come under this kingdom.All the organism in this kingdom are microscopic.
Protista:-This Kingdom includes unicellular form usually found in aquatic habitats. On the basis of mode of nutritution they are autotropic,parasitic and saprophytic. Diatoms flagellates and protozoa come under this kingdom.Euglena have both heterotropic and autotrophic mode of nutrition.so it is placed between plant and animal
Fungi:-This Kingdom includes non green plants. It has saprophytic nutrition and growing on dead and decaying organic matters.the cell wall is composed of chitin. Example:-Mushrooms, Mucor and Albugo etc.
Planatae:-This kingdom includes all plant except some algae,diatoms,fungi and member of monera and protista
Animalia:-Almost all animal comes under this kingdom except protozoan
There was need of uniform international naming of organism.In biology every organism is given two proper names.The first name is genus name always started with capital letter and second is species started with small letter For Example Scientific name of human is homo sapiens
Homo is the name of genus,whose one species is sapiens
Scientific name of some organism:-
Man Homo sapiens
Cat Felis domestica
Frog Rana tigrina
Dog Canis familaris
Cow Bos indicus
Mango Mangifera indica
Wheat Triticum aestivum
Gram Cicer arietinum
Housefly Musca domestica
Rice Oryza sativa
Pea Pisum sativum
Mustard Brassica campestris