Ascending of the British

Carnatic wars

  1. An instance of Anglo French Rivalry

  2. First(1746-48).The French besieged Madras At St.Thomas battle the Nawabs of Carnatic’army was defeated by French under Dupliex

  3. Treaty of Aix-La-chapelle (1748) ended the war of Austrian Succession.

  4. Second War(1749-54).Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (hyderadad) and Chanda Sahib(Carnatic’s)

  5. After initial victories,Robert clive emerged victorious.

  6. Third war(1758-63) French,count de Lally captured “ Fort St.David “

  7. French were defeated at Wandiwash(1760)

  8. Pondicherry was returned to French by the Treaty of Paris.

THE EAST INDIA COMPANY AND THE BENGAL NAWABS

Siraj-ud-Daula(1756-57)

  1. He seiged the English factory at Kasimbazar .On June 20th 1756,Fort Wlliam Surrended but Robert Clive recovered Calcutta.

  2. On January 2nd,1757,Treaty  of Alinagar was signed ,whereby Siraj conceded practically all the demands ,British then captured  Chandernagore,the French settlement.on March 1757.

  3. Battle of plassey was fought on Jun 23,1757.owing to the conspiracy, the Nawab was defeated.

The following  betrayed the Nawabs:-

Mir Jafar-Mir Bakshi

Manikchand – Officer-in –Charge of Calcatta

Aminchand-Rich Sikh merchant

Jagat Seth-Biggest Banker of Bengal

Khadim Khan-Commanded a large number of Nawab’s Troops

Mir Jafar(1757-60)

The company was granted undisputed right to free  trade in Bengal,Bihar and Orissa.it received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas , Mir Jafar, however, fell into arrears and was forced to abdicate in favour of his son-in-law Mir Qasim.

Mir Qasim(1760-64)

  1. Mir Qasim ceded Burdwan ,Midnapore and Chittagong .He shifted his capital from Mursidabad to Monghyr.

  2. Mir Qasim soon revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the dastaks(free duty passes).However,having seen defeated by the British,he fled to Awadh,where he formed a confederacy with Shuja-ud-Daulah and Shah Alam.

  3. Battle of Buxar(1764),Shuja-ud- Daula,Shah Alam and Mir Qasim were defeated by Munro.

  4. Mir Jafar(1763) was again placed on the throne.

Nizam-ud-Daulah(1765-72)

  1. On Mir jafar’ death his son Nizam-Ud- daulah was placed on the throne and signed  a treaty on 20th February 1765 by which the Nawabs was to be disband most of his army  and to administer  Bengal through a Deputy Subandar nominated by the company.

  2. Clive Concluded two separate treaties of Allahabad with Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Alam –II

  3. Dual system of government started in Bengal.The Company acquired both Diwani and Nizamat rights from Najm-ud-daula(1765-66),the new Nawab of Bengal ,but the company did not take direct administration and revenue collection.Waren Hastings ended the dual system of government in 1772

Anglo Mysore Wars

  1. First War(1766-69) Haider Ali defeated the british,Treaty of Madras signed.

  2. Second War(1780-84) Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe,which was in Hyder Ali’s territory.

  3. Haider Ali a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot.

  4. In 1781,Hyder Ali was defeated at porto Novo by Eyre coot.

  5. Treaty of Mangalore(1784) was signed by Tipu Sultan

  6. Third War(1789-92),Marathas and Nizam aided the British,Cornwallis captured Banglore.By Treaty of Seringapatnam,Tipu ceded half of its territories.

  7. Fourth War(1799).Lord Wallesley attacked and Tipu died.

Anglo Maratha War:-

  1. First war(1775-82).favouring the cause of Raghunath Roa for Peshwaship,English(Hastings ) came in conflicts with the Marathas.on being defeated,the British had to sign the humiliating convention of wadgaon.

  2. British later signed Treaty of salbhai,renouncing the cause Raghoba

  3. second war (1803-06),The Maratha Peshwa signed the subsidiary Alliance Treaty of Bassein.(1802).

  4. The Maratha confederacy,which did not like the idea challenged the British power but were defeated by the British.

  5. Third War(1817-1888).Lord Hastings was determined to proclaim British Paramountacy in india.Hastings moves against pindaris transgressed the sovereignty of the Maratha chief and the war began.

  6. The Marathas were decisively defeated.

Anglo- Sikh Wars

  1. Began after the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839

  2. First War (1845-46),Sikhs were defeated in all the four battles at Mudki,Feroz Shah,Aliwal and Sobraon.Treaty of Lahore ended the war.Sir Henry Lawerence became the first resident.

  3. Second War(1948-49),Dalhousie annexed Punjab.Sir John Lawerence became the first chief Commissioner of the Punjab.

Anglo- Burmese Wars

Aims

  1. To control forest resources

  2. To increase exports

  3. To check French influence

  4. First War(1824-26).British forces drove the Burmese out of Assam,Cachar,Manipur and Arakan.Peace treaty of Yandobo signed.

  5. Second War(1852).British annexed Pegu but faced the popular Guerrilla Welfare

  6. British now controlled whole Burma’s coastline.

  7. Third War(1885).The British annexed upper Burma.

Anglo-Afghan Wars

  1. First War(1839-42).Arose because the British(Lord Auckland) wanted to replace Dost Muhammad with a puppet ruler, Shah Shuja.

  2. The British faced a popular revolt but where able to re-occupy Kabul.However,they had to restore the throne to Dost Muhammad

  3. Second War(1878-80), Afghan ruler ,Sher Ali was defeated by Lord Lytton and his son signed the Treaty of Grandamak.A British resident was kept in Kabul.After he was killed,British adopted the principle of non interference( Lord Ripon